Photovoltaic Cells

Solar cell produced by Saturn PJSC

Types and Performances of Photovoltaic Cells

Different design-technological modifications of PVCs are produced depending on specific operating conditions:

  • with polished surface;
  • with Al rear side reflector;
  • with integrated bypass diodes.

Characteristics of Photovoltaic Cells (PVCs) at АМ0

Characteristics of Photovoltaic Cells at АМ0 (1360 W/m2) and Т = 28 °С

Material Si
GaInP2 / GaAs / Ge
Solar cell thickness, μm
190 ± 30 150 ± 20, 100 ± 20
Integrated bypass diode Available Available

Today, Saturn PJSC has successful experience of gallium arsenide solar cells selling to customers for the manufacturing of small spacecraft of CubeSat size.

Energy Performances of Photovoltaic Cells

Material Si
GaInP2 / GaAs / Ge
Short-Circuit Current Density, Jsc, mА/сm2 41–46 16.8
Open Circuit Voltage, Uoc, V 0.61–0.63 2.667
Current at Maximum Power, Jmp, mА/сm2 44.0 16.1
Voltage at Maximum Power, Ump, V 0.52 2.371
Maximum Power, Pmp, W/m2 211 381
Efficiency, η, % 15.5 28.0

Temperature Coefficients

d ISC / dT μА / сm2 / °С 19.8 10.6
d IMP / dT μА / сm2 / °С 9.3
d UOC / dT mV / °С –1.92 –6.0
d UMP / dT mV / °С –2.0 –6.1
d PMP / dT mW / сm2 / °С –0.068 –0.090

Radiation Resistance of Photovoltaic Cells

When operating in outer space, solar arrays and, accordingly, photovoltaic cells are exposed to radiation (Earth radiation belts, solar and space radiation), resulting in gradual degradation of their electric characteristics. PVCs’ radiation resistance in ground conditions is investigated by impact of monoenergetic beam of electrons with energy of 1 MeV (equivalent electron flow).

The coefficients of degradation of PVCs’ electrical performances depending on the affecting dose (fluence) of radiation

Fluence, e/сm2 1Е14 2,5Е14 5Е14 1Е15 3Е15 1Е16
Types of PVCs Si GIP GaAs Ge GIP GaAs Ge Si GIP GaAs Ge Si GIP GaAs Ge Si
JSC 0.915 0.99 0.99 0.794 0.96 0.737 0.87 0.674
UOC 0.845 0.96 0.95 0.777 0.93 0.744 0.90 0.693
JMP 0.931 0.97 0.95 0.797 0.94 0.738 0.84 0.642
UMP 0.839 0.96 0.94 0.763 0.93 0.725 0.90 0.664
PMP 0.781 0.95 0.92 0.608 0.88 0.535 0.76 0.426

Ce-doped glass of K-208 grade (100 ± 20) µm thick is used to protect PVCs from space aggressive effects. The cover glass size exceeds that of PVC by 0.2 mm.


Special coatings are applied on glass plates depending on particular project requirements:

  • AR (antireflecting) coating;
  • UV & IR filters;
  • Al reflective coating.