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Lithium-Ion Storage Battery (LISB)

Since 2005 Saturn PJSC has been developing parametric line of Lithium-Ion prismatic cells with capacity from 10 A·h to 120 A·h, and batteries on their base. In 2008–20111, the first LISB, built by Saturn PJSC, passed flight tests (flight qualification) as part of the Power Supply System of spacecraft "GLONASS-M". Since 2013, the Lithium-Ion battery 4LI-20 with integrated balancing device has been undergoing flight tests on low-orbiting SC. Several types of Lithium-Ion storage batteries have completed ground tests, and have been shipped to customers for flight tests.


In 2013, operation of Li-Ion batteries 4LI-20, containing structurally integrated balancing devices, started in the composition of the low earth orbit satellites. In 2014 started operation of a spacecraft in geostationary orbit with a Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries 23LI-50 manufactured by Saturn PJSC.

Mechanical Interface

In all the developed models the battery housing is made in the form of a monoblock with densely packed Lithium-Ion sealed prismatic (LISP) cells. The monoblock is a container made of Mg-Al alloy; its bottom plate serves for a basement. Cells’ cases are electrically isolated from each other and from the container internal surfaces, and connected in a parallel-series circuit, thus ensuring high durability of the monoblock, and allowing battery fastening in several points around its perimeter, and when needed (in case of multi-bank layout), – in the center of the bottom plate. The bottom plate is fitted with filmy electric heaters. Monoblock design may be used as a strength element in a SC structure.

Thermal Interface

Heat dissipation is made from the cell bottom through the heat-conducting gasket or the bottom plate.


Storage Battery 23LI-65

Rated voltage, V 83
Energy intensity, W·h 5500
Specific energy W·h/kg 118
W·h/liter < 129.4
Mass, not more than, kg 46.8

Module of 22×2LI-85 battery for GEO

Rated Voltage, V 80
Energy intensity, W·h 16 200
Specific energy, W·h/kg 138
W·h/Liter < 165
Mass, not more than, kg 2x58.7

12LI-48 battery (with Monitor and Control Module) for People’s Republic of China

Rated Voltage, V 44
Energy intensity, W·h 2370
Specific energy, W·h/kg 103
W·h/Liter < 109
Mass, not more than, kg 23

23LI-50 battery for spacecraft on GEO

Rated Voltage, V 83
Energy intensity, W·h 5200
Specific energy, W·h/kg 114
W·h/Liter < 146
Mass, not more than, kg 45.5

LISB Management

The main function of LISB control algorithm is to ensure maximum state of charge before the beginning of discharge in eclipse at minimal overcharging, in particular, when the given daily thermal balance is observed. For optimum management the following indications are used:

  • Individual cell voltage;
  • Indications of temperature sensors.

To reduce the cable network of the spacecraft, some LISBs may have integral Monitor and Control Modules (hereinafter – MCM). MCM has the following functions:

  • Data transmission to the on-board computer about LISB state (battery voltage and temperature, each cell voltage), and charge and discharge currents;
  • Balancing of Li-Ion cells’ state of charge;
  • Monitoring of LISB overcharge and overdischarge, and generating signals to the on-board computer;
  • Bypass switch activation by a command.

Ensuring LISB reliability and safety

Overcharge and overdischarge protection is ensured by an electronic device, which is absolutely reliable in management.

Internal short circuit is prevented structurally by separator wrapping (packaging) around the electrodes and by using between the electrodes a three-ply separator, which loses its porosity (melts) upon reaching a critical temperature, and stops the electrochemical process.

Failed or anomalously degraded cells are excluded from the circuit by means of bypass switches.

The basic requirements that apply to a bypass switch for the Li-Ion storage batteries for spacecraft are the following: reliability, minimal energy loss, minimal mass, maintenance of LISB circuit continuity at switching, and mechanical and irradiation stability.

Scheme of bypass switch connection and time diagram of bypass switch operation ensure circuit continuity maintenance, when switching the cells’ circuit in the storage battery.

Thus, the failure of any cell does not lead to LISB failure. LISB reliability is also ensured by comprehensive qualification (including life tests) and strict control during manufacturing.